In Palestine, chronic exposure to lead has not been adequately addressed as a problem for children. To assess the exposure of Palestinian schoolchildren, we surveyed blood lead levels in 3 schools in Nablus city and collected demographic and clinical data. Blood samples were collected from 178 children (140 boys, 38 girls), age range 6-8 years. The overall mean blood lead level was 3.2 (SD 2.4) microg/dL, and 4.5% of children had levels above 10 microg/dL. Blood lead levels were significantly higher among children living in refugee camps near industrial/high traffic regions than among children living in residential areas of the city. Blood lead levels were positively correlated with family size (r = 0.15) and negatively correlated with household area (r = -0.18). Blood lead levels among these Palestinian schoolchildren were higher than those of other countries where leaded gasoline has been banned and seemed to be higher in more economically deprived children.