Chronic kidney disease is considered as a global health problem. Hemodialysis (HD), following renal transplantation, is the most common form of renal replacement therapy. However, HD may impact the quality of life (QOL). Pain is a frequent complaint among this population that also affects their QOL. The purposes of this study were to assess pain and QOL among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on HD and to examine their association.
This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study that occurred in Palestine between August and November 2018. Brief Pain Inventory and European Quality of Life scale 5 dimensions (EQ-5D) scale, including its European Quality of Life visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) component, were used to assess pain and QOL, respectively.
A total of 300 participants were included in the final study. The average age of the subjects was 54 ± 16 years. Their median EQ-5D score was 0.68 [0.54–0.88], whereas their median EQ-VAS score was 60 [40–75]. A statistically significant association of pain severity score with EQ-5D score was found (r = − 0.783, p < 0.001). The association between pain interference score and EQ-5D score was also found to be statistically significant (r = − 0.868, p < 0.001). Similarly, pain severity score was significantly assocsiated with EQ-VAS score (r = − 0.590, p < 0.001), the same as was the pain interference score (r = − 0.647, p < 0.001). Moreover, age, gender, BMI, employment, educational level, income level, dialysis vintage, previous kidney transplantation, and chronic medication use were all significantly correlated with QOL. Regression analysis showed that patients aged < 60 years (p < 0.001), those with lower pain severity scores (p = 0.003), and those with lower pain interference scores (p < 0.001) had significantly higher QOL scores.
Pain has a significant negative impact on QOL in ESRD patients undergoing HD. The subgroups that were at higher risk included elderly patients, females, those with higher BMI, those without a formal education, those unemployed, those living with low monthly income, smokers, those who have multiple comorbidities, and patients with longer dialysis vintage. Our findings provide reliable data for educators and clinicians working with HD patients.