Tolerability and epidemiology of nephrotoxicity associated with conventional amphotericin B therapy: a retrospective study in tertiary care centers in Palestine
Publication Type
Original research

Background: In the light of recent years, an increase in the number of life-threatening infections due to various fungi has been observed, especially in tertiary care centres. With Amphotericin B labelled as the first choice in treating these infections, one of its common side effects, nephrotoxicity, along with hypokalemia, were studied to determine the epidemiology, risk factors, and protective measures.

Methodology: The study was a retrospective observational chart review study in which patients were receiving conventional Amphotericin B in two tertiary hospitals in Palestine from January 2018 to December 2020 were evaluated for the development of hypokalemia and nephrotoxicity; according to the KDIGO criteria. A total of 117 patients were included in the study. Patients who have received the drug intermittently, in fewer than two doses, through non-IV routes and patients under the age of 12 were excluded. The data collected included, but were not limited to, age, gender, comorbidities, Amphotericin B treatment details, medications, COVID-19 status, risk factors, and hypothesized protective measures.

Results: The incidence of conventional Amphotericin B nephrotoxicity and hypokalemia was 46% and 33%, respectively. With a roughly equal representation of both genders and a median age of 52 years in a range of 13–89. No association between the variables and the development of nephrotoxicity was found. However, a 3.4 increased risk (p-value = 0.01) of developing hypokalemia in females compared to males was observed.

Conclusion: Our research has shown a relatively lower yet consistent, the incidence of conventional amphotericin B nephrotoxicity and hypokalemia compared to literature with gender being a risk factor for developing hypokalemia.

BMC Nephrology
Publisher Country
United Kingdom
Impact Factor
Publication Type
Both (Printed and Online)