A Pilot Study to Evaluation of the Level of Knowledge and Quality of Water Used in Drug Reconstitution among Community Pharmacist in Palestine
Publication Type
Original research

Background: Water is widely used as diluents because of its ability to dissolve, absorb, or suspend many different compounds including reconstituted drugs. The quality of water used is important as it may include contaminants that may represent hazards.
Methodology: In this pilot study we evaluated the problems associated with the improper use of water grade used in reconstitution of dry powdered drugs. A self-administered questionnaire was constructed to determine the rate of dispensing drug that needs reconstitution and to evaluate the knowledge of the pharmacists about the type of water that should be used and its specifications. Eight different tests were applied on the collected samples including microbiological an electrolytes tests.
Results: The results of this study showed a low response rate of the visited pharmacies. Only 47 out of 90 filled the questionnaire and provided water samples for testing. Testing results of the collected samples showed that (33%) of the samples had failed the microbiological test. Most of the samples passed the Sulphate and Calcium tests (85.1%, 74.4%) respectively. However, most of the samples failed the Chloride and Ammonia tests (93.6%, 85.1%) respectively. Moreover, (97.8%) of the tested samples failed the conductivity and pH specified test.
Conclusion: The results of this study show a low level of knowledge among the local community pharmacists regarding the proper type of water and the allowed mineral content   in water used for the reconstitution of powdered drugs. The quality tests results of the collected samples showed the unsuitability of the water used by the community pharmacist.

British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
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Publication Type
Online only