PSA and testosterone serum levels in the middle east; is there a difference?
Publication Type
Conference Paper



Objective: we aimed to evaluate the difference between testosterone and prostate specific antigen (PSA) serum levels between Arabic and Turkish people.

Material and methods:  The study included three separate groups of healthy men from two geographically distinct regions in Turkey and the third group from Palestinian people.  Group 1 included 119 patients with a mean age of 52.73±7.53 years who visited Osmaniye State Hospital in the east of Turkey for routine check-up between January 2006 and January 2007. Group 2 consisted of 196  patients with a mean age of 50.32±7.84 years who visited the outpatient clinics in İzmir Atatürk Teaching  Hospital in the west of Turkey between July 2008 and July 2009. Group III consisted of 388 , with mean age 51+6 years  who visited Palestinian state hospitals in west bank in Palestine between November 2011 and May . 2012. All patients were less than 60 year-old with PSA value less than 4 ng/ml and normal digital rectal examination for those older than 5 years. Any patient with history of prostatic surgery or has urinary tract infection were excluded. The mean values of PSA and testosterone were calculated for each groups and a comparison were carried out. Similarly the relationships among testosterone and TPSA levels and patients’ age were evaluated.

Results: The mean TPSA levels for Group I, Group II and group III  were 1.11±0.78 ng/mL and 1.75±1.06 ng/mL, 1.1+8 ng/ml  respectively  (p=0.5, p=0.7, p=0.8 respectively). The mean testosterone levels in Group I (386.4±154.6 ng/dL) , Group II (383.9±170.6 ng/dL)  and group III (380±230 ng/L)  showed no significant difference (p=0.89, p=0.29, p=0.7). There was a positive correlation between the age of the patients and testosterone level (r=0.22, p=0.015) in Group I; however, in Group II, and group III there were  a significant negative correlation between age and serum testosterone levels (r=-0.16, p=0.022 and r=-0.29, p=˂0.01). Serum testosterone level showed no significant correlation with TPSA level in all groups (Group 1: r=0.03, p=0.72; Group 2: r=-0.04, p=0.67, group III r= 0.05, p=0.34).

 Conclusion: Testosterone or TPSA levels did not change among different nations or different geographical regions in the middle east. However, the effect of age on testosterone levels varies according to different geographical regions. Further studies with more patients from different nations in the region are needed to confirm these preliminary results. The impact of geographic and national variations on the oncologic features of prostate cancer and other urologic and non urological diseases should be investigated.

Conference Title
), 10th Arab Urology Association Congress, November 19-21-2013,Erbel-Iraq.
Conference Country
Conference Date
Jan. 1, 2013 - Jan. 1, 2013
Conference Sponsor
Arap association of urology